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Clifford Geertz, Islam. Lo sviluppo religioso in Marocco e in Indonesia

 Clifford Geertz, Islam. Lo sviluppo religioso in Marocco e in Indonesia, Raffaello Cortina, Milano 2008.  

Dopo la traduzione italiana del 1973 realizzata da Morcelliana, il famoso libro di Clifford Geertz, frutto di una serie di conferenze tenute a Yale e pubblicate nel 1967, viene ripubblicato in italiano per i tipi di Raffaello Cortina. Certo, i quarant’anni di distanza che separano questa traduzione dall’edizione americana del libro scontano i cambiamenti che nel frattempo si sono verificati nell’Islam. Eppure non si può dire che l’antropologo americano non avesse almeno intuito in che direzione stessero muovendosi le società islamiche. Soprattutto, Geertz ha avuto il merito, in un epoca in cui gli studiosi di scienze sociali si concentravano quasi esclusivamente sugli sviluppi economici e politici dei paesi post-coloniali, di indagare il modo in cui la religione stava reagendo all’impatto con la modernità. Per far ciò Geertz prende in considerazione due paesi, Marocco e Indonesia, che, pur facendo teoricamente parte della stessa civiltà islamica, hanno sviluppato nel corso dei secoli due “stili” religiosi profondamente diversi. D’altra parte, l’interesse dell’antropologo non è un’indagine dell’Islam in sé, quanto uno studio di religione comparata, o più precisamente un tentativo «di scoprire quali tipi di credenze e di pratiche sostengono quali tipi di fede e in quali condizioni». «Il problema – continua Geertz – non sta nel definire la religione, ma nel trovarla». In questa prospettiva, nel confronto con la modernità coloniale, le persone non avrebbe modificato il contenuto della loro fede, ma «il modo in cui esso è creduto». L’esito di questo processo consisterebbe nella crisi generata dal divorzio tra la fede e la sua capacità di spiegare il reale. Di fronte a tale frattura, la risposta dell’Islam marocchino così come di quello indonesiano si sarebbe espressa nello scritturalismo, cioè nel ritorno ideologico al passato e ai testi fondatori considerati come l’antidoto al travaglio della modernità.

 

 

In sintesi l’Islam, e più in generale la religione, non sarebbero condannati a sparire dal mondo, quanto destinati a rappresentare sistemi simbolici ormai insignificanti, e perciò inadatti a rendere conto dell’esperienza, che troverebbe invece una spiegazione più plausibile nelle risposte della scienza. A questo punto ci sembra di poter dire che se, da un lato, l’analisi di Geertz rimane valida per interpretare alcune tendenze dell’Islam attuale, d’altra parte la sua teoria finisce per proporre una contrapposizione tra fede e scienza che non solo non è estendibile in maniera indifferenziata a tutti i fenomeni religiosi, ma nemmeno pare in grado di dare ragione della totalità dell’esperienza umana.

 

Al di là della valutazione dell’approccio di Geertz, all’editore resta il merito, nonostante alcuni difetti di traduzione soprattutto dei termini arabi, di aver offerto al pubblico italiano un classico dell’antropologia che a quarant’anni di distanza nulla ha perso del suo fascino.

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